Next Generation Internet Glossary

30. 07. 2006 | 12/2001 | Comments [0]

Next Generation Internet Glossary. A2B - Administration to business: This refers to electronic interaction between public authorities and companies such as transferring tax forms or application forms.

Next Generation Internet GlossaryA2B – Administration to business: This refers to electronic interaction between public authorities and companies such as transferring tax forms or application forms.

A2C – Administration to consumer:This refers to electronic interaction between public authorities and customers such as transferring tax forms or driving-license documentation.

Account – Authorization to acces a computer offering ( online services or owned by an ( internet service provider. An account is generally associated with services such as a ( mailbox and the ability to copy (or ( down-load) information onto the account holder's computer.

Acrobat – Adobe Acrobat is a system for transferfing documents with ( hypertext attributes between different platforms. For examle, a document could be designed using PageMaker software on an Apple Macintosh and stored as an Acrobat ( PDF file which can then be displayed on a Windows-based computer or viewed on the internet by using the PDF Viewer plug-in for Navigator. Consequently, software that was originally used to create the file is not required on the destination system.

Acronym – Frequently used expressions are often shortened when communicating on the internet. Some of the important abbreviations used in e.g. e-mails or ( chat groups are follows (( Emoticons):

  • ASAP: As Soon As Possible

*BTW : By The Way

  • CU: See You
  • CUL8R: See You Later
  • EOD: End Of Disussion
  • FYI: For Your Information

*IMHO: In My Humble Opinion

*ROTFL: Rolling On The Floor Laughing

*THX : Thanks

ActiveX – Microsoft development tool for dynamic internet applications, exclusively for use with Internet Explorer, Competing product to ( Java and Shockwave, which function with Netscape Navigator.

Address – Every computer in a network has its own unique address, referred to as its ( IP address. Anyone using the internet or an online service such as AOL is assigned a temporary IP address and a unique e-mail address.

ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line: This is an advanced technology for carrying large volumes of data over conventional copper wires (telephone lines). It allows speeds of up to 8 Mbit/s to the customer and 1 Mbit/s from the customer back into the network, and is therefore roughly 60 times faster than ( ISDN, ( SDSL, ( UDSL.

Animated GIF – Animated images in ( GIF format are moving graphics used on the Web, e.g. a dog that runs across the Web page, a rotating icon, or a waving hand. The individual graphics run like a film, and are stored together in an animated GIF file in GIF89a format. Animated GIFs are the only animation format that can be displayed on the Web without the use of additional technology or ( plug-ins. Anonymous FTP – Internet service allowing unrestricted access to an FTP (File Transfer Protocol) server, and therefor anonymous file copying.

ANSI American National Standards Institute

Applet – A program developed in the ( Java programming language to run in a ( WWW ( browser.

Application service provider – Application service provider (ASP): An ASP offers a new type of service framework in which customers have access to IT applications via a network. These applications are offered as high-quality, standardized serveces, based on specific utilization fees. An ASP only sells the right to use software, and not the software itself. This is therefor a new concept in software marketing.

Archie – An internet database for files avaliable via anonymous ( FTP. Archie is updated automatically on a continuous basis. Queries are answered in the form of content lists containing ( URLs for the storage locations concerned.

ARPANET Advanced Research Projects Agency Network: This computer network is seen as the predecessor of today's ( internet. It was set up in 1969 by the American Defense Agency and based on the ( TCP/IP protocol. The task assigned to ARPA was to create a communication network, which would still be able to transfer data in the event of an atomic war and subsequent failure of large sections of the network, and which would allow computers from different manufacturers to exchange data usingba common protocol. This goal was achieved by creating the ARPANET, a network of computers based on the use of packets. Individual items of information were sent around this network in small data packets. Like road traffic, these information packets would find their own way through the computer network. The route taken by the packets was irrelevant, since they would be assembled to recreate the original information when they reached their destination. The ARPANET grew quickly, and for practical reasons was devided into two separate networks in 1983, namely the MILNET (which exists today as a purely military network) and in the internet for civilian use. The internet, which had been under development since 1975, adopted techniques such as ( TCP/IP. The actual ARPANET developed during the course of the project no longer exists.

ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode: This is a transmission technique that establishes a connection between two points, like the conventional, line-switched, telephone network. Each connection can be assigned individual resources that it can use, but which no other subscriber can access. ATM can therefor offer an extremely high level of service. ATM uses fixed-size cells comparable to data packets (53 bytes with 5 bytes of header information or overhead, and 48 bytes of payload), and is equally suitable for carying data and real-time applications such as voice and video. In the mid1990s, ATM was seen as the universal technology that would be used in all networks, from LAN to WAN, in the future. However, delays in standardization, and consequently in product development, meant that ATM was overtaken by IP network technology.

Authentication – Access authorization check: Identification check based on user name and password, and used for connections to ( servers with access restrictions.

B channel – Bearer Channel: The bearer channel in the ( ISDN network carries voice and data information with a bandwidth of 64 kbit/s.

B2B – Business to business: This refers to business transactions between companies that take place in the form of electronic interactions, and generally as a result of formal, contractual agreements. B2B functions include sophisticated internet authorization procedures and price-proposal monitoring, contract and content information for each partner, catalogs with customer information based on access controls, parameter searches for reliable business customers, together with functions for order input such as standardized “send to” locations, dynamic cost accounting for orders, and different payment options. B2B is the biggest transaction sector in the internet.

B2C – Business to customer: This refers to business transactions between companies and end customers that take place in the form of electronic onteractions. B2C can imply formal relationships (with occur in real time, to offer new customers purchasing or selling opportunities, or access to information).

Backbone – These are high-speed network connections with a huge data-transfer capacity, and are used to connect national networks together. High-speed lines provide the internet highways.

Bandwidth – The exact definition of bandwidth is the difference between the highest and the lowest frequency within a continuos range. In the case of online technologies, the bandwidth can be fixed to the transmission speed. Today, private users can achieve access speeds of 56kbit/s on analog lines, and 64kbit/s (( ISDN) and 128 kbit/s respectively with channel packing. Compared to current standards, new technologies such as ( ADSL will theoretically achieve more than ten times this level of data throughput. In practice, nearly all connections will be slower than the potencial speeds described here, at least fot the internet.

Baud – Modulation rate of isochronuous signals. The precise definition of Monsieur Baudot is too lengthy to include in this glossary, but baud is mentioned here because it is often incorrectly used instead of bits per second (( bps or bits/s) to specify the data transfer speed of ( modems or network connections.

BCC Blind Copy: This allows the sender of an e-mail to specify additional recipients, whose names are not visible to the primary recipient. The recipient does not see these blind copies.

Bit – A bit is the smallest unit of digital information, taking its name from Binary Digit. The 1s and 0 s represent yes or no in the stream of digital data. The next-largest unit is a ( byte, and generally consists of eight bits.

Bluetooth – Bluetooth refers to the use of short-range radio signals to provide wireless networking for devices. It is named after the Viking King Harald Bluetooth (Harald Blatand) from the 10th century. The first Bluetooth devices are already available on the market. In the future, many mobile phones, organizers, and even PCs will be fitted with this radio technology as standard. The transmission range extends up to 10 meters, and allows mobile phones and organizers to exchange data. Consequently, Bluetooth makes conventional cable and infrared connections redundat. Line-of-sight between devices is not necessary, so your mobile phone can be in your jacket pocket or in your briefcase while your organizer establishes a connection via mobile radio. Bluetooth broadcasts in the frequency range from 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz, and achieves a data throughput of up to 721 kbit/s.

Bookmark – Pages on the internet can be flagged in the user's ( browser and allocated a bookmark. The user can then go directly to these pages again by clicking on the relevant bookmarks.

Bps – Bits per second: This is a unit of measurement for defining the transmission speed of a ( modem or the data transfer speed of an internet connection. It is often confused with ( baud.

Broadband access – This refers to broadband access to the network (internet) via copper cable or radio link. It offers speeds that are many times greaters than the typical performance of ( ISDN (64 kbit/s), for example 8 Mbit/s in the case of ( ADSL. High-speed access to the network can be achieved using ( xDSL technology over conventional telephone copper wire, or with other transmission methods such as Ethernet ot ( ATM.

Browser – To browse is to look around. Browser software allows the user to ( navigate their way around the network and display the graphical contents of pages on the ( World Wide Web, for example.

Bulletin Board System – Bulletin Board System (BBS) are primarily used as a forum for exchanging opinions and information. The most famous BBS is the worldwide Usenet news system. Newsgroups discuss special topics in each case.

b This is a screen element, which the user can click on with the mouse to initiate a response from the program, concerned.

Byte – Unit of measurement for digital information. Generally speaking, one byte = 8 bits. An eight-character string of 0s and 1s gives 256 possible combinations. The information contained in a byte can therefore represent one of 256 different states or values. For example, an 8-bit graphics card allows the display of 256 colors, while 24 bits allow 16.7 million different color definitions. 1 kilobyte of memory stores 1,024 characters.

C2C – Consumer to consumer: This refers to electronic interaction between customers (generally for business purposes), e.g. the sale of secondhand goods.

Cache – A secret store: This refers to an area of memory where data can be stored temporarily. If the required data can be found in the cache (cache hit), then the processor can process it considerably faster than in the case of access to the (comparatively slow) main memory (RAM). However, cache also describes a temporary storage area for data on an external computer (( proxy server). For example, cache storage can reduce the time required to download (WWW pages, if these are retrieved from local storage instead of being transported over the network again, or if they are stored temporarily on an external proxy server.

Call waiting – If there is a second incoming call during a telephone conversation, the called party receives an acoustic or opical call-waiting signal. The second call can be taken without terminating the first call.

CAPI Common Application Programmable Interface: CAPI is a standardized interface between the communication interface and the protocol interface. CAPI allows any number of ( ISDN application programs to communicate with any number of ISDN adapter cards.

Carrier – A licensed company (network operator) may market any number of communication services to both end-customers (private or business) and other carriers. In the latter case, the service simply consists of transport capacity for long-distance traffic. For example, local/regional network operators will buy transport capacity from carriers that operate on a global basis.

Cascading Style Sheets – This language defines the formating characteristic of individual ( HTML commands. Thanks to Cascading Style Sheets, the Web designer only has to define formatting once from a central point and text and layout instructions can be defined separately. Cascading Style Sheets therefore have a similar function to the print format templates used in many word processing programs. There are now two versions of Cascading Style Sheets: Version 1.0 from 1996 and Version 2.0 from March 1998. Internet Explorer was the first browser with facilities to internet Cascading Style Sheets.

CC – Courtesy copy: This is the electronic or e-mail version of the tradicional carbon copy. It is intended to provide information for people who are not directly involved in the process concerned.

CCI Customer Case Integration combines technical know-how (e.g. concerning call-center and communication technologies) with process know-how (e.g. customer contacts, workflow and data integration).

CCITT Abbreviation for Comité Consultatif International de Télégraphique et Téléphonique. This is a branch of the United Nations International Telecommunication Union (( ITU). Among other things, the CCITT makes recommendations for communication protocols. The ITU is now responsible for these tasks.

Cellphone – An American term for ( mobile phone.

Centrex – Central Office Exchange Service: This is a public exchange service with the characteristics of a private branch exchange or telephone installation. This value-added service is offered for voice traffic within the intelligent network (IN) managed by a network operator. With Centrex, the network operator offers services over the local network to its customers , e.g. the voice facilities of a telephone installation. It may be used to provide additional facilities that are not available on the customer's telephone installation. However, it can also be used to provide a complete telephone infrastructure. In this case, the service includes full outsourcing, where the customer no longer owns their in-house telephone installation, and the network operator provides all the services required. The use of Centrex services can result in significant savings.

CERN Centre Européen des Recherches Nucléaires, European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva (Switzerland), where the foundations of the ( World Wide Web were laid in 1991. ( Hypertext technology was also developed at CERN, and provides the basis for the WWW today.

CERT Computer Emergency Response Team: An organization of the Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh (USA), which offers a number of services, including information for network operators and network administrators about security problemson the internet, such as ( viruses and recommended countermeasures.

CGICommon Gateway ( Interface: This is respinsible for interaction between the web ( client (the visitor to the web site) and the web ( server or external programs and scripts held there. Among other things, CGI scripts ensure that forms completed by the user are processed and forwarded to the relevant recipient via e-mail. The CGI interface also determines how external programs can extend the funcionality of a WWW server. CGI applications can be programmed in various languages (C, Perl, Visual Basic, Apple Script etc.).

CGI script – Small program for extending the functionality of a (WWW ( server. It can access specific data on the WWW server via the CGI interface.

Chat – 'Live', online communication between a theoretically unlimited number of subscribers, e.g. in internet forums.

Circuit switching – With a circuit-switched connection, two subscribers are connected together via a fixed line. The recources allocated to this connection (typically 64kbit/s for an ISDN telephone call) are used exclusively by the subscribers concerned, and cannot be affected by third parties (as they can in packet-switched networks). Consequently, circuit-switched connections offer optimum transmission quality for real-time applications such as voice. Voice transfer in networks based on internet technology (packet-switching) is therefore the subject of considerable activity, with a view to combining the benefits of both ( switching technologies. ( Next-Generation Intenet.

CLEC Competitive Local Exchange Carrier: Since deregulation of the telephone markets, new local network operators have been founded that are in direct competition with the ( ILECs. CLECs offer local telephone services. Sometimes called ALECs (Alternative Local Exchange Carrier).

Client – A program that can retrieve information from a ( server. For example, a browser is a client program that can display the pages on a ( WWW server.

Commercial at – The symbol is used in the ( e-mail address to describe where the user is registred (e.g.

Content pages – All ( HTML pages except for interactive services such as ( chat.

Content Provider – A service organization that offers information (contents) via a network. Content Providers require the assistance of a ( service provider in order to make their service available.

Convergence – Convergence describes the amalgamation of data communication (previously two separate wolds) into a single, integrated network with new services and applications. The technical basis for network convergence is ( internet technology and the ( IP protocol. Convergent systems can be found in the ( LANs that are typically used for corporate networks and the ( WANs that are typically used for public networks. ( Switching technology.

Cookie – A cookie is a filecreated by a ( WWW browser so that the server can recognize you disable this option.

CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture: This is a future-oriented software architecture, which allows individual program parts (objects) to communicate with others, irrespective of the programming language or operating system used.

Core router – Core ( routers are switching computers used on the main connection links (( bacjbone) of a network. These switching computers are particularly powerful, and specialize in the transfer of huge data volumes over the information highway.

Corporate GSM Corporate GSM allows seamless connection of GSM mobile radio with the corporate network. On company premises, users can access existing IP-based data networks (Internet Protocol) or communication servers with their mobile phones, in the same way as they do with conventional terminal devices. This means that many of the company's important voice and data services are directly available on a GSM mobile phone. Features such as CTI (computer-telephone integration) and unified messaging can therefore be used when on the move, and the mobile phone user can be reached on the same extension number (direct dialing) at all times, whether in the office or elsewhere on company premises, and can request the services they require at any time.

CRM Customer Relationship Management, ( ECRM

Cryptography – In order to protect confidential information, cryptographyc (or encryption) systems are used to encrypt the data packets sent over the network. Various systems have been developed for this purpose. They are all based on principle that only someone with the correct key can decrypt an encrypted message.

Cyberspace – A term to describe the world you enter when surfing the internet. It also refers to 'virtual' reality in computer simulations.

D channel – Data channel: Also know as the control channel, the data channel is included in the basic ISDN access interface and has a speed of 16 kbit/s. The D channel carries the control information required to establish and shut down connections.

Data compression – This reduces the volume of digital files. Data compression techniques can be used to reduce the size of image, audio or ( video data significantly in order to limit transfer times on the internet, for example. The greater the compression, the lower the quality of reproduction. ( JPEG (image data compression), ( MPEG and QuickTime (video/audio data compression).

Dial-in node – A computer that allows a user to access the internet or an online service.

Dial-up – Unlike a permanent line, a dial-up connection to the internet is a temporary connection established via a telephone line.

Digital signature – A digital or electronic signature is generated using a digital key (code) to encrypt the information. Only the holder of the digital key can generate the valid code sequence for the signature. The holder can therefore prove his or her identity with the digital signature, and authenticate messages, payment transactions or orders, for example.

Domain – A domain is a name used by an organization or person to identify a specific computer or specific network resources available on the internet. The whole of the internet is imaged by Domain Name Servers (DNS). Special domain name servers provide internet users with the data required to established contact with the required to establish contact with the required host. DNS Lookup occurs automaticaly each time an internet address is called in the browser, and is generally not noticed by the user.

Domain management – The stock of concise domain names is dwindling rapidaly as the internet takes off. In Germany, there were only 1,000 domain names in January 1994. Today, there are approximately 100,000 new domains every month in Germany alone. A domain may consist of several subdomains.

A domain name has the following structure:

  • Computer name: www
  • Subdomain: siemens
  • Top-level domain: de
  • Combinied:

The top-level domain can be a country identifier (e.g. 'de' for Germany, 'ch' for Switzerland, etc.) There are also top-level domains that do not have a country identifier:

  • 'gov' for government offices and public authorities
  • 'mil' for military organizations
  • 'edu' for colleges and other such organizations
  • 'net' for network organizations
  • 'com' for commercial companies
  • 'org' for non-profit organizations

The following new TLDs were defined by ( ICANN in December 2000 (TLD name and owner):

  • '.aero' (Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aeronautiques SC, (SITA))
  • '.biz' (JVTeam, LLC;.coop – National Cooperative Business Association, (NCBA))
  • '.info' (Afilias, LLC;.museum – Museum Domain Management Association, (MDMA))
  • '.name' (Global Name Registry, LTD)
  • '.pro' (RegistryPro, LTD.)

Domain Name Server – DNS: A server that converts ( domain names into ( IP addresses and vice versa.

Download – It is often possible to download data free of charge from online services on the internet. This data is stored as files on the computer's hard disk and can therefore be copied as required.

DSL The xDSL family: The x indicates the DSL variants ( ADSL, ( SDSL and ( UDSL.

DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access ( Multiplexer: An access devices in the central office (CO) for broadband subscriber level access ( xDSL technology. Lines from the DSL subscriber are connected to a DSLAM – multiplexed on a line – and connected, usually, via a ( router to the internet.

DVD – Digital Versatile Disk. The DVD is designed to replace both the compact disc (CD) and the videocassette, DVDs look the same as CDs, but have a considerably greater storage capacity of approximately 4.7 gigabytes. This has been achieved by reducing the track width and using a more sensitive read device. It is therefore possible to fit complete feature films on a single disc.

DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing is an optical wavelength multiplexing method with particularly high density. In this context, high density is equivalent to particularly high performance or transmission capacity. The DWDM method is based on WDM. The colors of light, i.e. different frequencies, are used for transmission. Safety clearances are left between the individual channels to avoid interference.

Ebone – A European internet backbone brought into service by ( RIPE in 1992.

E-business – Generic term for business that is processed via electronic media, including the internet, other computer networks, wireless transmission equipment.

E-commerce – or electronic trade is part of e-business and a generic term for all types of transaction conducted over electronic media. The internet is the primery medium for e-commerce, but standards such as (EDI can also be used for e-commerce over company-internal networks. E-commerce consists mainly of purchase/sale transactions. Other types of transaction include business conducted by public authorities and banks.

ECRM – Electronic Commerce Relationship Management: This relationship management is based on a combination of technologies including the internet, mobile business, and voice communication. Customer advantages include the ability to contact a service provider using any available communications medium.

Edge router – Edge ( routers are switching computers located at the edges of large network. They collect the data traffic generated by the customers of a network operator, concentrate it, and forward it to the core ( routers. Today, edge routers are frequently used for subscriber broadband access with ADSL technology. The switching computer accepts the incoming ADSL connections, concentrates the data received, and forwards it to the core routers. An edge router can also read the data formats and protocols used in local company networks ans send them over the ( WAN.

EDI Electronic Data Interchange: This standard allows the transfer of e.g. orders between companies.

Electronic cash – Digital money /e-cash: Generic term for electronic payment transactions, e.g. on the internet and in the context of online services. Vast resources are currently being devoted to ensuring that e-cash in secure, so that business on the internet can run more smoothly. E-cash generally refers to electronic money used on the internet. In order to turn the internet into a giant cybermall (online shopping center), companies have developed software that provides complete and secure order processing over the internet. These software packages support a variety of payment schemes which mostly fall into two categories. The first category is the traditional credit card. Most Web browsers and internet service providers (ISPs) support one of the major security protocols such as Secure Socket Layer (SSL). For example, on Netscape's browser, if the transmission between browser and server is secure, the key icon at the lower left side of the screen is connected. Otherwise, it is split in half to signal an unsecured transmission. More elaborate methods, such as CyberCash's credit card system, prevent the merchant from seeing the credit card number. The second type of digital money is like travelers checks. This digital money is either downloaded as digital coins from a participating bank into the user's personal computer or a digital money account is set up within the bank. Either the digital coins or the transactions that debit the account are transmitted to the merchant for payment. All transactions are encrypted for security.

Electronic publishing – In general, this refers to the preparation of contents to be displayed on a screen. Publications can be distributed simultaneously via CD-ROM, floppy disk, online services or the ( internet.

Electronic mail: Internet users and users of commercial online services such as AOL and T-Online each have an individual e-mail address, allowing them to exchange messages and data around the world within seconds. An e-mail is transferred from the sender's computer to the computer of the ( service provider that provides internet access for the recipient. The e-mail is stored there until the recipient looks in his personal electronic mailbox and collects it. Both text and files can be sent by e-mail.

E-mail address – This address is used to send ( e-mail to a specific recipient, and is unique throughout the world. It comprises the user name, followed by , followed by the ( host name of the computer that manages the recipient's e-mail, followed by a full stop, followed by the ( domain which the server is assigned. Example:

Emoticon – A combination of emotion and ( icon: An emoticon is a symbol made up of characters on the keyboard, and allows participants in online communication to let others know how they feel. The best-know emoticon is the smiley grin. Tilt your head sideways to read the symbol.wink means that you are winking, and :( indicates sadness. :{) and (:) indicate that the user has a mustache or a bald head respectively, while :-? is a pipe-smoker. Other obvious examples include :-o to indicate that you are surprised and 8-0 that you are horrified. There are countless emoticons with all sorts of meanings.

Encryption – General term for procedures used to encode data so that commercial business can be conducted on the internet. Also known as cryptography.

E-procurement – This refers to procurement via electronic media such as the internet or other computer networks, etc. The objective of e-procurement systems is to provide a trade platform for buyers.

ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute: This European body develops and manages standards in the field of telecommunications. ETSI is based in Sophia-Antipolis near Nice. Among other things, it isresponsible for protocols and transmission methods.

EWSD This is a Siemens trademark for their digital electronic switching system. It is the world's most succesful system, with 220 million lines currently installed.

Extranet – An extranet is a network for use by a closed user group, and uses the same technology as the internet. ( Password protection allows external user groups such as dealers and suppliers to gain restricted access to data that is not intended for the public.

FAQ Frequently Asked Questions: Widespread online service, providing answers to frequently asked questions.

Firewall – Firewall technology refers to precautions in the form of software and/or hardware, which are intended to prevent unauthorized access to protected areas and data resources via a network ( (e.g. access to a company's intranet).

Flames – Flames are insults sent via e-mail to people who contravene ( netiquette or otherwise make themselves unpopular among surfers.

Forms – The forms used on web pages allow prospective customers and information seekers to send queries, orders, and other data. The structure of a form is defined by ( HTML. ( JavaScript can check inputs. ( CGI scripts are responsible for processing and forwarding the data input.

Frames – Frames are used to devide the Www pages displayed by a browser into separate parts. To obtain a paper copy of the required page section, it must first be activated by the mouse and canj then be printed as usual.

Freeware – Software available free of charge on the ( internet, which can be downloaded onto the user's computer. Unlike shareware, payment is not required even if the freeware is used for an extended period.

TP- File Transfer Protocol: FTP is used to transfer files on the ( internet by ( downloading.

FYI – For Your Information. This is often used when forwarding e-mails to third parties for information purposes. No response/action is expected from the recipient.

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